Harput with its precinct is one of the most ancient place in Anatolia. As a matter of fact, this region has been residential area since paleolithic age because this region has well-watered and loam soils and natural rock shelters and also animals which live in land and water are very abundant in this region. It is seen that history of Elazığ and its precinct is based on the Hittite Empire. It is known that this region was called Isuva in 2000s BC and had been commanded by Urartians whose center was Van (Tuspa).
Especially Harput Castle (Milk Castle), Urartus’ setting area which was found in Altınova Norşuntepe, Palu Castle, tablets which were found in Karakoçan and İzoli put the case of domination of Urartu Civilization. Later on; Med Civilization, Persian Civilization, Roman Empire, Byzatine Empire and Arab Civilization commanded this region in different time periods. There is no doubt that Malazgirt pitched battle is the most important battle to becoming Turks homeland of Harput. Harput was conquered by the Çubuk Beg in 1085 and Beylik of Cubukoğulları was founded in Harput. Harput had been only a fortified castle before Turkish domination and then Harput was getting developing city with Turkish domination.
Existence of Beylik of Cubukoğulları didn’t long very much and Artukians conquered Harput and its precinct. Belek Gazi struggled against the crusades. 1. Alaaddin Keykubad put an end to Artukians and Harput fell into power of Great Seljuk Empire.
After war of Kösedağ, Harput was coquered by Ilhanians in 1243. Harput was conquered by Dulkadir Principality in 1363, Akkoyunlu Principality in 1465 and finally Ottaman Empire with war of Çaldıran in 1516. Because of its geographical position, Harput had been one of the most imporatant residential area center and Reşit Mehmet Pasha moved Elazığ province to Harput in 1834. City founded new became eyalet firstly and then center of vilayet. It became sancak bounded to Diyarbakır. It became separate eyalet in 1875 and vilayet again in 1879. Malatya and Dersim were bound to it during last period of Ottoman Empire and these sancaks leaved from Elazığ in 1921.
Time period of history of Elazığ City
Civilizations which ruled in Harput are mentioned below
- Hurrian Civilization (20th century B.C.)
- Hittites (14th – 13th centuries B.C.)
- Urartu Civilization (9th century B.C.)
- Roman Empire (8th century B.C.)
- Byzantine Empire (10th – 11th centuries A.D.)
- Azerbaijani Turks (11th century A.D.)
- Arab Civilization (11th century A.D.)
- Beylik of Cubukogullari (12th century A.D.)
- Artukians (12th century A.D.)
- Seljuk Empire (13th – 14th centuries A.D.)
- Dulkadir Principality (14th century A.D.)
- Akkoyunlu Principality (15th century A.D.)
- Ottoman Empire (16th century A.D.)
For more information visit http://www.elazigkulturturizm.gov.tr/TR,58519/harput.html